Questions: Day 1


  • What are bacteria? List down some characteristics of bacteria.
    • Bacteria are microorganisms.

  • How can they be identified?
    • Bacteria can be characterized by one of the three typical shapes: rod-shaped, round and spiral. Further classification is based on the cell wall characteristics. They can also be characterized by growth patterns. Many types of bacteria are motile, which means they are able to swim using a flagella. Other bacteria have rigid, rodlike protrusions called pili that serve as tethers.
    • Some bacteria can only function with the presence of atmospheric oxygen, while others cannot grow with atmospheric oxygen. Instead, they rely on obtaining oxygen from compounds.

  • Name three common bacteria and places where they are commonly found.
    • Salmonella
      • Found in:
        • Food: Contaminated eggs, poultry, meat, unpasteurized milk or juice, cheese, contaminated raw fruits and vegetables (alfalfa sprouts, melons), spices, and nuts
        • Animals: Particularly reptiles (snakes, turtles, lizards), amphibians (frogs), birds (baby chicks) and pet food and treats.
    • E. coli
      • Found in:
        • Contaminated food, especially undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized (raw) milk and juice, soft cheeses made from raw milk, and raw fruits and vegetables (such as sprouts)
        • Contaminated water, including drinking untreated water and swimming in contaminated water
        • Animals and their environment: particularly cows, sheep, and goats. If you don’t wash your hands carefully after touching an animal or its environment, you could get an E. coli infection
        • Feces of infected people
    • Listeria
      • Found in:
        • Ready-to-eat deli meats and hot dogs
        • Refrigerated pâtés or meat spreads
        • Unpasteurized (raw) milk and dairy products
        • Soft cheese made with unpasteurized milk, such as queso fresco, Feta, Brie, Camembert
        • Refrigerated smoked seafood
        • Raw sprouts

  • Are all bacteria harmful? If not, name some bacteria beneficial to humans.
    • No. In fact, they can be used in industrial productions.
    • "A major industry has developed to produce bacterial preparations, in the form of powders, drinks, and dairy products; all sold as healthy and beneficial (and sometimes tasty) supplements. Although some of their promises are unrealistic (some products don’t even contain viable bacteria), it is generally accepted that certain bacteria are beneficial, especially when intestinal flora is unbalanced (as with antibiotic-associated diarrhea). The most commonly used bacterial species as so-called probiotics are lactobacilli and bifidobacterium." -Actionbioscience
      • Lactobacilli
        • They are used for yoghurts and the maintenance of healthy intestinal microflora.
      • Bifidobacterium
        • It promotes good digestion, boosts the immune system and produces lactid and acetic acid that controls the intestinal pH levels.

No comments:

Post a Comment